Check if a business has discriminated against you because you’re transgender
Businesses and services aren’t usually allowed to treat you differently because you’re transgender. The law that says this is the Equality Act 2010.
The Equality Act says businesses can’t discriminate against people because of things like their age and race. These things are called ‘protected characteristics’.
As a trans person, you have the protected characteristic of ‘gender reassignment’.
Gender reassignment means you:
are planning to transition from the sex you were assigned at birth to a different sex
are in the process of transitioning
have already transitioned
Transitioning could include things like changing your name, pronouns or the way you dress - you don’t need to have had medical treatment.
If you’re non-binary
‘Non-binary’ describes people who don’t identify as a man or a woman.
If you’re non-binary, you might have the protected characteristic of gender reassignment - you can get advice from the Equality Advisory Support Service helpline.
If a business refuses to serve you
If a mixed-sex service refuses to serve you because you’re trans, this is discrimination.
When you use a service for only men or women, you should be able to use the service that matches your gender identity. If a business doesn’t let you use a service that matches your gender identity, it might be discrimination.
In very restricted circumstances, a business offering services for only men or women can provide the service to you in a different way.
If the business can’t provide the service to you in a different way, they might exclude you from the service entirely.
When businesses can treat you differently
The Equality Act says a business can only treat you differently because you’re trans if it’s a ‘proportionate’ way of achieving a ‘legitimate aim’. This is a legal test called ‘objective justification’.
A legitimate aim could be safeguarding the wellbeing of everyone who uses the service - including you.
The decision to treat you differently mustn’t be based on ignorance or prejudice - these are not legitimate aims.
The way the business treats you differently must be a proportionate way of meeting their legitimate aim. This means the business:
could only meet their aim by treating you differently
didn’t treat you more differently than was needed to meet the legitimate aim
A business can’t decide they have objective justification for treating you differently - only a court can decide this. It’s likely to be difficult for the business to prove they have objective justification. If you have a gender recognition certificate, it might be harder for a business to prove they have objective justification.
This law can be confusing - if you’re not sure if a business has discriminated against you, call the Equality Advisory Support Service helpline.
Sabine is a trans woman who applies for women-only group therapy. The organisers say they wouldn’t be able to meet the needs of other people using the service if a trans woman was included.
Sabine thinks this is discrimination, so she takes the organisation to court.
The court will ask the organisation to prove that excluding Sabine is a proportionate way for them to meet a legitimate aim.
The court will then decide if the organisation has proved they have objective justification.
If the business makes you feel intimidated or humiliated, it might be harassment - this is a type of discrimination. Businesses are never allowed to harass you. Find out more about harassment.
If you have a gender recognition certificate
If a business asks for evidence of your legal sex, you can use your birth certificate. You shouldn’t need to show your gender recognition certificate (GRC).
If they ask to see your GRC, this might be discrimination - they’re treating you differently from other service users because you’re trans.
It’s illegal for businesses to tell other people you’re trans without your consent - they could get a fine of up to £5,000. You can find out more about your right to privacy as a trans person on the Galop website.
Services for trans people
In some situations, businesses can offer a service to people who share a protected characteristic to help them overcome disadvantage. This is called 'positive action'.
For example, many trans people avoid swimming because they're worried about discrimination. A leisure centre could offer weekly swimming sessions for trans and non-binary people only, to help them overcome this disadvantage.
If you need to use a service that doesn’t match your gender
You might need to use a service that doesn’t match your gender identity. For example, a trans woman might need a prostate exam at a clinic advertised for men or a trans man might need to use postnatal services advertised for women.
If the business doesn’t offer the service to you in a way that protects your dignity and privacy, it might be discrimination.
If you’ve been discriminated against
If you think a business has discriminated against you because you’re trans you can:
- check what type of discrimination it is - for example, harassment or victimisation
- find out what action you can take - for example, making a complaint or going to court
- check if you can get legal aid on GOV.UK - if you want to take legal action
Get more help
If a business has refused to serve you or made you feel unwelcome because you’re trans, you can:
- get confidential advice and support from Galop
- call the Equality Advisory Support Service helpline to get more information about discrimination
- find groups that support trans people in your area on TranzWiki, which is run by the Gender Identity Research & Education Society